What do the scale that forms on the inside of a kettle and the natural gas at the bottom of the Earth’s deepest oceans have in common? They are both cause problems when we try to produce oil and gas. The calcium carbonate scale that forms in the kettle also forms in production equipment and is a significant cause of ESP failure. When natural gas is combined with water at high pressure and low temperature a solid ice-like structure forms – conditions that are present not only at the bottom of the sea but also in some of our pipelines where these "gas hydrates" have caused blockages and caused pipes to rupture.
These are two issues in the subject...Читать дальше >>>